Jackie Kennedy rare photo negatives legend original candid Spain Seville duchess

Jackie Kennedy rare photo negatives legend original candid Spain Seville duchess


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6 fantastic negatives (with 7 recent 8x10 inch photos from negatives) of Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis and Duchess of Alba of Spain attending an event in Seville Spain for Cayetano Martinez de Irujo's marriage (son of Duchess of Alba of Spain). Pictured in negatives are Duchess and Jackie at the event with Duchess Albas husband Luis Martínez de Irujo. Come with original United Press International envelope.



LA OTRA CRONICA
GRACE KELLY, JACQUELINE Y LOS ALBA EN SEVILLA
[foto de la noticia]

A los seis meses de heredar el trono de Mónaco, Alberto Grimaldi sigue siendo una incógnita para sus 30.000 súbditos y para el mundo entero, que observa desde hace 50 años los avatares del pequeño país mediterráneo de apenas dos kilómetros cuadrados.El Mónaco de Alberto I permanece en la lista negra de la OCDE, como uno de los paraísos fiscales (en sus entidades bancarias se refugian 56.000 millones de euros).

El Principado de Mónaco sigue siendo un espectáculo de bodas, divorcios, tragedias, hijos secretos y guerras de familia, por el que apuesta la prensa rosa del mundo entero. Los editores saben que cada revista que lleve a Carolina, Estefanía o el hijo secreto del Alberto en portada hace subir las ventas un 15%.

La historia de Rainiero, Grace y sus herederos, siempre de actualidad, es una fuente inagotable de glamour, noticias y escándalos.En Los Grimaldi, de la periodista María Eugenia Yagüe, editado por la editorial Plaza y Janés, aparecen nuevos datos sobre una familia que lleva casi 1.000 años en la Historia aunque a veces dé la impresión que camina hacia su extinción.

Estos días en que los Alba y Sevilla están de actualidad por la boda de Cayetano Martínez de Irujo, un capítulo de Los Grimaldi está dedicado al papel que jugó la duquesa cuando Jacqueline Kennedy y Gracia de Mónaco se enfrentaron en la Feria sevillana.

«En abril de 1966, cuando (los príncipes de Mónaco) celebraban su décimo aniversario de boda, organizaron un viaje a Sevilla como una segunda luna de miel.

( ) La duquesa de Alba les invitó a su palacio de Las Dueñas(...).Cayetana le había pedido a la Reina doña Victoria Eugenia, tan amiga de Grace como de la familia Alba, que convenciera a la princesa de Mónaco para asistir sobre todo al baile de debutantes, donde las jóvenes sevillanas de las mejores casas se presentaban en sociedad. Un baile benéfico por el que cada familia pagaba como mínimo 5.000 pesetas de las de aquella época, destinadas a la Cruz Roja( ). La fiesta tuvo lugar en la Casa de Pilatos, el palacio de los duques de Medinaceli en el centro histórico de Sevilla. Los organizadores le pidieron a Grace y a otra invitada excepcional, Jacqueline Kennedy, que presidieran la gala.

Jacqueline era aquellos días la invitada personal de la duquesa de Alba en el palacio de Las Dueñas. La coincidencia de Grace y Jackie le daba un realce fuera de lo común a la fiesta. Pero nadie había previsto la enemistad que existía entre la llamada viuda de América y su compatriota Grace Kelly. Al parecer, el enfrentamiento entre las dos familias se había iniciado el mismo día del magnicidio de Dallas, el 22 de noviembre de 1963. Se dice que los príncipes de Mónaco, invitados aquellos días por la familia Kennedy en su residencia de Hyannis Port, no abandonaron una fiesta a la que asistían cuando se enteraron del atentado(...).

Todos los que estaban en la Casa de Pilatos se dieron cuenta de la frialdad que reinaba en el ambiente en torno a las dos damas. No hubo saludos, se limitaron a mirarse brevemente. Tampoco había forma de hacerles una foto juntas ( ).

El duque de Medinaceli las sentó en su mesa, la más importante de la fiesta, una a cada lado y él en medio. Sin embargo, no se dirigieron la palabra en todo el tiempo.

Con el flamenco empezó a relajarse todo el mundo. Grace estaba encantada con las guitarras y los bailaores, dispuesta a quedarse hasta el final. Jackie Kennedy, en cambio, dejaba el palacio de Medinaceli a la una de la madrugada con cara de circunstancias(...).

La duquesa de Alba hizo todo lo posible por suavizar las relaciones.Poco después invitó a los Príncipes a un almuerzo en Dueñas, en el que estaba también su famosa huésped norteamericana, pero los esfuerzos resultaron inútiles. Grace y Jackie apenas se hablaron( ).

La viuda de Kennedy, sensible a las habladurías y a la persecución periodística que tanto la agobiaba, decidió dar una brevísima rueda de prensa en uno de los patios de Dueñas. En realidad fue su acompañante de aquellos días, Antonio Garrigues y Díaz-Cañabate, con el que mantenía una estrecha relación, quizá sentimental, quien trasmitió el mensaje a los periodistas: «No hay rivalidad entre ellas».

Por fin una mañana de Feria, Jackie Kennedy se puso una mantilla española para visitar los Reales Alcázares con su amigo el embajador Garrigues. Por la tarde acudió a los toros y un día después se paseó a caballo junto a Cayetana por el recinto ferial( ).

Después de este viaje los Grimaldi mantuvieron su relación con España. Grace y su hijo Alberto asistieron al entierro de doña Victoria Eugenia en Lausana, junto a la Familia Real española.También fueron invitados a la boda de Alfonso de Borbón Dampierre con Carmen Martínez Bordiú, una ceremonia en la que escasearon personajes importantes de la realeza europea, que en general siempre le dio la espalda a la España de Franco.

Muchos años después Carolina Grimaldi, su marido Ernesto de Hannover y el príncipe Rainiero cazaron cada otoño en una finca extremeña de la familia Bustamante. Los príncipes de Hannover también se han reunido a menudo con los duques de Lugo. Y en cada acontecimiento familiar en el palacio de Mónaco siempre ha habido telegramas de la casa de Alba.

Jacqueline Lee "Jackie" Kennedy Onassis (née Bouvier, pronounced /ˌˈdʒækliːn ˈliː ˈbuːvieɪ/;[1] July 28, 1929 – May 19, 1994) was the wife of the 35th President of the United States, John F. Kennedy, and First Lady of the United States during his presidency from 1961 until his assassination in 1963.

Bouvier was the elder daughter of Wall Street stockbroker John Vernou Bouvier III and socialite Janet Lee Bouvier. In 1951, she graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in French literature from George Washington University and went on to work for the Washington Times-Herald as an inquiring photographer.

In 1952, Bouvier met Congressman John F. Kennedy at a dinner party. Shortly after, he was elected to the United States Senate and the couple married the following year. They had four children, two of whom died in infancy. As First Lady, she aided her husband's administration with her presence in social events and with her highly publicized restoration of the White House. On November 22, 1963, she was riding with him in a motorcade in Dallas, Texas, when he was assassinated. She and her children withdrew from public view after his funeral, and she married Aristotle Onassis in 1968.

Following her second husband's death in 1975, she had a career as a book editor for the final two decades of her life. She is remembered for her contributions to the arts and preservation of historic architecture, as well as for her style, elegance, and grace.[2][3] She was a fashion icon; her famous ensemble of pink Chanel suit and matching pillbox hat has become symbolic of her husband's assassination and one of the most iconic images of the 1960s.[4][5] She ranks as one of the most popular First Ladies and in 1999 was named on Gallup's list of Most Admired Men and Women in 20th century America.[6]

Contents

    1 Background and childhood
        1.1 Interests
        1.2 Parents' divorce and mother's remarriage
    2 Education and young adulthood
        2.1 Washington Times-Herald and engagement
    3 Kennedy marriage and family
        3.1 Engagement and wedding
        3.2 Early years
        3.3 Relationship with Rose and Joseph Kennedy
    4 First Lady of the United States
        4.1 Campaign for Presidency
        4.2 As First Lady
        4.3 Social success
        4.4 White House restoration
        4.5 Foreign trips
        4.6 Death of infant son
    5 Assassination and funeral of John F. Kennedy
    6 Life following the John F. Kennedy assassination: 1963-1975
        6.1 Public appearances
        6.2 Relationship with Robert F. Kennedy
        6.3 Onassis marriage
    7 Later years: 1975-1990s
        7.1 Book editor and preservationist
        7.2 Political activities
    8 Illness, death and funeral
    9 Legacy
        9.1 Popularity
        9.2 Style icon
    10 Honors and memorials
    11 See also
    12 References
    13 Bibliography
    14 External links

Background and childhood

Jacqueline Lee Bouvier was born on July 28, 1929 in Southampton, New York,[7] to Wall Street stockbroker John Vernou "Black Jack" Bouvier III (1891–1957) and Janet Norton Lee (1907–1989), at Southampton Hospital.[8] Bouvier was baptized at the Church of St. Ignatius Loyola in Manhattan.[9] She was named after her father.[10] Her younger sister, Caroline Lee (1933–), known as Lee, was born four years later. The Bouviers divorced in 1940; in 1942, Janet married Standard Oil heir Hugh Dudley Auchincloss, Jr. and had two more children: Janet Jennings Auchincloss (1945–1985)[11] and James Lee Auchincloss (born 1947).[12]

Bouvier's mother was of Irish ancestry,[13] and her father's ancestry included French, Scottish, and English.[14] Her maternal great-grandfather emigrated from Cork, Ireland, and later became the Superintendent of the New York City Public Schools. Michel Bouvier, Bouvier's patrilineal great-great-grandfather, was born in France and was a contemporary of Joseph Bonaparte and Stephen Girard. He was a Philadelphia-based cabinetmaker, carpenter, merchant, and real estate speculator.[15] Michel's wife, Louise Vernou, was the daughter of French émigré tobacconist John Vernou and English-born Elizabeth Clifford Lindsay. Michel and Louise's sons included John Vernou Bouvier, Sr. and Michel Charles Bouvier. Bouvier's paternal grandfather John Vernou Bouvier, Jr., whom she called "Grampy Jack",[16] fabricated a more noble ancestry for his family in his vanity family history book, Our Forebears. Recent scholarship and the research done by her cousin John Hagy Davis in his book, The Bouviers: Portrait of an American Family,[17] have disproved most of these fantasy lineages.

Bouvier spent her early years in Manhattan and East Hampton on Long Island, at the Bouvier family estate, "Lasata."[18] Following their parents' divorce, the Bouvier sisters divided their time between their mother's homes in McLean, Virginia and Newport, Rhode Island, and their father's homes in New York City at 125 East 74th Street[18][19][20] and Long Island.[21]

Bouvier strongly resembled her father, whom she idolized. Her father likewise favored her over her sister, calling his eldest child "the most beautiful daughter a man ever had."[22] Flaherty attributed her father's praise of her to fueling Jacqueline's confidence in herself.[23] Lee Radziwil would later say that Bouvier would not have gained her "independence and individuality" had it not been for the relationship she had with their father and paternal grandfather.[24]

Although raised as a Catholic, she was not devout. Neither before her mother's remarriage or in any other part of her early life had faith been a necessity in her family. Despite her lack of involvement, she would defend Catholicism whenever it came under scrutiny, though she was open-minded and had no issue discussing how she personally felt about her religion. A classmate recalled that she had vast knowledge on the subject.[25]
Interests
Jacqueline Bouvier at age six.

At a very early age, she became an enthusiastic equestrienne,[21][26] and horse-riding remained a lifelong passion.[27] By age 2, Bouvier was able to control her pony with confidence; whenever she fell off, she would instantly climb back on.[24] From the age of 6, Bouvier was educated in the equestrian art of dressage.[28] Despite the upheavals in her family life, Bouvier continued her riding and training throughout her youth.[29]

Beginning in her youth, she was similar to her mother in her riding and athleticism as well as her reserve and temper. As their father became more estranged from the marriage, the Bouvier sisters began to spend more time with their mother. Her mother encouraged the pair's artistic traits, as they had been influenced by their paternal grandfather, who had rewarded them and his other grandchildren at his home for drawing pictures and composing poems.[30] In her youth, she took ballet lessons and though only having average talent, she never lost interest in the subject.[31]

During high school, Bouvier, who was a theater lover, wrote a musical which was produced by the drama club. Though she admitted to her stepbrother Yusha the desire to become an actress, she felt unwilling to pursue it due to the uncertainty of the career. She was able to impersonate her teachers during her education and entertained classmates by mimicking them. She was also able to learn languages with ease — in particular, French — due to her mother insisting that she and her sister learn it and requiring that it be the only one which could be spoken at the dinner table.[31]
Parents' divorce and mother's remarriage

Author and cousin John H. Davis wrote that she suffered over the divorce of her parents and that it was noticed by her relatives that she subsequently had a "tendency to withdraw frequently into a private world of her own."[32] The humiliation of having intimate details of her parents' lives publicized had taken its toll on ten-year-old Bouvier.[33] Janet married Hugh D. Auchincloss on June 21, 1942. Her daughters did not attend the ceremony because the wedding was arranged quickly and "because of wartime travel restrictions."[34] Her sister recounts the pair being at their grandmother's home in East Hampton when their mother notified them of the marriage by telephone.[35] Two days after the wedding, Auchincloss shipped out to work with British intelligence in Jamaica. Bouvier's mother stayed with her daughters until he returned. Both girls, along with Auchincloss's son Hugh Dudley "Yusha" Auchincloss III and later the couple's two children together, all lived at Auchincloss's Merrywood estate in McLean, Virginia. Merrywood would be Bouvier's primary residence for the remainder of her teen years.[34]

Bouvier retained a relationship with her father while also spending considerable time with the Auchinclosses.[32] Her new stepfather, Hugh Auchincloss, whom she and her sister called "Uncle Hughdie", became a father figure. Pottker wrote that he gave her a stable environment and the pampered childhood she never would have experienced otherwise.[36] Auchincloss's son, Yusha, became her closest step-sibling and one of her most trusted confidants.[34] Yusha's daughter Maya said the pair retained a bond throughout the remainder of their lives.[37][38]

Though Bouvier eventually adjusted to her mother's remarriage, she still sometimes felt like an outsider in the high society world of the Auchinclosses. Her friend, bandleader Peter Duchin, said she told him later that she had always felt as if she did not belong in that world, and that she attributed it to her being Catholic in a Protestant environment as well as feeling different because she was child of divorce which was not common in that social group at that time.[39]

The year 1945 proved to be eventful for Jacqueline. Her mother gave birth to Bouvier's half-sister, Janet Jennings Auchincloss, and President Franklin D. Roosevelt died shortly after being elected to his fourth term as U.S. President. Bouvier had originally disliked Roosevelt due to her father "always moaning" about Roosevelt's policy on stock exchanges, but grew to like him after realizing that she had only had disdain for the sitting president because of her father. With his passing, she became worried about what would become of America. Celebrity biographer Donald Spoto wrote that the death affected her even more than the birth of her half-sister and the passing of her grandmother two years prior in 1943.[10]
Education and young adulthood

Bouvier attended the Chapin School in Manhattan[26] for first through sixth grade. Her paternal grandfather covered the expenses of the school, which were substantial, especially in light of the annual income earned by many Americans during the Great Depression.[40] Janet Norton Lee remembered her daughter's intellectual ability running ahead of her "chronological age" at the time she started attending Chapin School.[30] Her behavior became an issue at school, which her mother attributed to her finishing assignments before classmates and then acting out in boredom.[41] Childhood friend Nancy Tuckerman recalled Bouvier's brightness but claimed she "held the distinction of being the naughtiest girl in the class" during what she called "the days when good manners and proper behaviors were key factors in our education."[30] Harris writes that Bouvier's behavior improved following a dialogue with the headmistress of Chapin, who acknowledged her positive qualities, but warned her that none of those would matter if she did not act properly.[41]

Bouvier went on to the Holton-Arms School in Bethesda, Maryland, attending from 1942 to 1944, and Miss Porter's School in Farmington, Connecticut, from 1944 to 1947.[13] She chose Miss Porter's because it was a boarding school, and she wished to distance herself from the Auchinclosses. Intending to go to college, she found common ground with Miss Porter's headmasters, Mr. and Mrs. Johnson, who placed an emphasis on college preparatory classes.[42] The yearbook for her senior year noted her wit, accomplishments as an equestrienne, and refusal to become a housewife.[43] She graduated among the top students of her class. At that time, she was also rewarded the Maria McKinney Memorial Award for Excellence in Literature.[44]

When she made her society debut in 1947, Hearst columnist Igor Cassini dubbed her "debutante of the year."[45] Despite this, she was not interested in potentially boasting her social standing and opted to continue her education instead.[29] Cousin John H. Davis remembered her as a young lady who on the surface seemed to conform to the social setting of society, but that her strong independence would lead her to "enormous success."[46]

Beginning in 1947, Bouvier attended Vassar College in Poughkeepsie, New York, for two years. Her mother encouraged her to apply as she had once desired to attend there. The school was favored by Bouvier's father for its short distance, which would allow him to see his daughter frequently.[47] He urged her to apply despite Bouvier writing it off as isolated during a visit to the campus before she began attending.[48] Bouvier was instantaneously accepted to Vassar after scoring highly among other applicants. She was a member of the school's art and drama clubs and joined Vassar's newspaper staff.[25] She fared well with her grades, particularly in her classes having to do with religion and Shakespeare.[46]

She spent her junior year (1949–1950) in France – at the University of Grenoble in Grenoble, and at the Sorbonne in Paris – in a study-abroad program through Smith College in Northampton, Massachusetts.[49] Upon returning home, she transferred to The George Washington University in Washington, D.C.; she graduated in 1951 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in French literature.[7] While attending George Washington, she won a junior editorship at Vogue magazine, selected over thousands of girls from across the country. The position entailed six months working in the magazine's New York City office and spending the remaining six in Paris, which greatly interested Bouvier.[50]

She later took continuing education classes in American History at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C.[7] Bouvier's college graduation coincided with her sister's high school graduation, and the two spent the summer of 1951 on a trip through Europe,[51] one that their stepfather had offered after disliking the possibility that Bouvier would be traveling abroad on the Vogue trip.[52] This trip was the subject of Bouvier's only autobiographical book, One Special Summer, – co-authored with her sister; it is also the only one of her published works to feature her drawings.[53]
Washington Times-Herald and engagement

Following her graduation, Bouvier was hired as "Inquiring Camera Girl" for the Washington Times-Herald.[54] The position required her to pose witty questions to individuals chosen at random on the street and take their pictures to be published in the newspaper alongside selected quotations from their responses.[49] In addition to the random "man on the street" vignettes, she sometimes sought interviews with people of interest such as six-year-old Tricia Nixon after her father Richard Nixon was elected to the vice presidency several days after the 1952 presidential election.[55][56]

She initially was hired as a part-time receptionist, but a week later she approached editor Frank Waldrop with the request that she have more challenging work. At first Waldrop was concerned that Bouvier might not have the technical skills required for that job, but she proved herself to be competent. Robert Denny, a colleague of Bouvier at The Washington Times-Herald, remembered her as "rather naive and almost touchingly trusting".[57] During this time, she was engaged to a young stockbroker, John G. W. Husted, Jr., for three months.[49] In proposing, Husted gave her a sapphire and diamond engagement ring, once having belonged to his mother. Their engagement was announced in The New York Times on January 21, 1951.[57] Bouvier and Husted only knew each other for a month prior to the engagement's beginning, which led Waldrop to not take the relationship seriously.[58] When Bouvier met John F. Kennedy at a dinner party, he tried to escort her to her car, but found Husted waiting for her and left immediately. She later broke off the engagement, telling friends that Husted was "immature and boring".[59][60] He reportedly never got over it and felt Kennedy had stolen her from him.[61]
Kennedy marriage and family
Engagement and wedding
Jacqueline Kennedy at Hammersmith Farm in Newport, Rhode Island on her wedding day, September 12, 1953

Jacqueline Lee Bouvier and then-U.S. Representative John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy belonged to the same social circle and often attended the same functions.[49] They were formally introduced by a mutual friend, journalist Charles L. Bartlett, at a dinner party in May 1952.[49] Bouvier was attracted to Kennedy's physical appearance, charm, wit and wealth. The two also shared similarities in both being Catholic and writers, enjoying reading and previously having lived abroad.[62] Kennedy was then busy running for the US Senate but after his election in November, the relationship grew more serious and led to their engagement, officially announced on June 25, 1953.[63][64]

Bouvier took some time to accept Kennedy's proposal, due to having been assigned, by her editor at The Washington Times-Herald, coverage of Queen Elizabeth II's coronation in London, where Bouvier stayed for two weeks before taking an additional trip to Paris for another two weeks. When she returned to the United States after a month abroad, Kennedy met her at the airport and she accepted, resigning her position at The Washington Times-Herald a day later.[65]

They were married on September 12, 1953, at St. Mary's Church in Newport, Rhode Island, in a Mass celebrated by Boston's Archbishop Richard Cushing.[66] The wedding was considered the social event of the season with an estimated 700 guests at the ceremony and 1,200 at the reception that followed at Hammersmith Farm.[67] The wedding cake was created by Plourde's Bakery in Fall River, Massachusetts.[68] The wedding dress, now housed in the Kennedy Library in Boston, Massachusetts, and the dresses of her attendants were created by designer Ann Lowe of New York City.[69]
Early years
Jacqueline Kennedy standing over her husband, John F. Kennedy, after his spinal surgery, December 1954

The newlyweds honeymooned in Acapulco, Mexico before settling in their new home, Hickory Hill in McLean, Virginia, a suburb of Washington, D.C.[70] Behind the glamour, however, the couple faced several personal setbacks. Jack had some serious health issues then unknown to the public; he suffered from Addison's Disease and from chronic and at times debilitating back pain due to a war injury. During the fall and winter of 1954, he underwent two delicate spinal operations that almost proved fatal.[71] Additionally, Kennedy suffered a miscarriage in 1955 and in August 1956 gave birth to a stillborn daughter whom they planned to name Arabella.[72][73] They subsequently sold their Hickory Hill estate to Jack's brother Robert, who occupied it with his wife Ethel and their growing family, and bought a townhouse on N Street in Georgetown.[13]

In August 1957, her father died of liver cancer at age 66. Kennedy, six months pregnant at the time, traveled to Lenox Hill Hospital in Manhattan to be with him in his final moments, but arrived after he had already passed away. She presided over his funeral, returning a bracelet that he had given her as a child.[74]

Kennedy gave birth to a daughter, Caroline, on November 27, 1957, via Caesarean section.[72] The couple posed for the cover of the April 21, 1958 issue of Life magazine, appearing with their infant daughter.[75] At first she opposed the magazine's offer of the cover, not wanting the baby to be used to benefit her husband's political career, but changed her mind in exchange for a promise from her father-in-law that Jack would stop campaigning during the summer to go to Paris with her.[76]

The couple traveled together during Jack's 1958 campaign for reelection to the U.S. Senate, trying to narrow the geographical gap between them that had persisted for the first five years of the marriage. Soon enough, Jack started to notice the value she had for his campaign, Kenneth O'Donnell remembering "the size of the crowd was twice as big" when she accompanied her husband, also recalling her as "always cheerful and obliging". But her husband's mother observed Kennedy as not being "a natural-born campaigner" due to her shyness and being uncomfortable with too much attention.[77] In November 1958, Senator Kennedy was reelected to a second term. Her husband credited Kennedy's help with securing his victory due to her visibility in both ads and stumping, calling her "simply invaluable."[78][79]

In July 1959, Arthur M. Schlesinger visited the Kennedy Compound in Hyannis Port, having his first conversation with Kennedy and finding her to have "tremendous awareness, an all-seeing eye and a ruthless judgement."[80] That year, her husband traveled to fourteen states, with Kennedy taking long breaks from the trips so she could spend time with their daughter. She also counseled her husband on improving his wardrobe in preparation for his intended run for the White House the next year.[81] In particular, she traveled to Louisiana to visit Edmund Reggie and to help her husband garner support in the state for his presidential bid. In doing so, she encountered union leader Jimmy Hoffa, who had contempt for her husband due to JFK's participation in criminal investigations on him. Leo Honeycutt interpreted the meeting as a threat to Kennedy, citing that Hoffa was trying to indicate he could get close to her whenever he wished.[82]
Relationship with Rose and Joseph Kennedy

Jacqueline Kennedy referred to Rose Kennedy as "Belle Mère," the French term for mother-in-law. When she became tired during the early months of her husband's presidency as a result of John Jr.'s birth, her mother-in-law would sometimes substitute for her at official functions.[83] Kennedy's mother-in-law was pleased when she was assigned to the Lincoln Bedroom at the White House during a stay, as JFK's mother would often compare her son to Abraham Lincoln. After the assassination and the stroke suffered by her father-in-law Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr., Kennedy compared herself and her mother-in-law to Ruth and Naomi, a daughter-in-law and mother-in-law from the Bible who supported each other following their husbands' deaths.[84]

She also had a good relationship with Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr.; biographer Barbara Leaming wrote that Joseph Sr. favored her "in many ways" over his surviving daughters because she reminded him of his late daughter Kathleen.[85] Joseph, Sr. developed a warm bond with her, being refreshed by Kennedy's independence and teasing of him. Billings remembered Joseph, Sr. being Kennedy's "most ardent supporter" and that he liked her due to her individuality.[86] Kennedy was believed by her father-in-law to be "exactly the wife" his son needed at his side when running for president. He had encouraged his son to marry Jacqueline Bouvier, who on her first time meeting the elder Kennedy sat with him, suspecting that he had been involved in convincing his son to propose.[87] Despite this, the elder Kennedy was steadfast in his defense of Jack amid rumors of his extramarital affairs.[85]

In later years, Kennedy was attentive to her husband's mother as she visited her in Hyannis Port, going for walks while the elderly woman was still able. After her health declined, Kennedy would sit with her and keep her company.[88] This was a contrast to when Kennedy was younger, sometimes expressing disdain for her mother-in-law. Despite this, Kennedy would later reflect that "[she] went out of her way" to be nice to her, commenting, "She was terribly sweet to me."[86]
First Lady of the United States
Campaign for Presidency
Jacqueline campaigning with her husband in Appleton, Wisconsin, in March 1960

On January 3, 1960, John F. Kennedy announced his candidacy for the Presidency and launched his nationwide campaign.[89] In the early months of the election year, she accompanied her husband to campaign events such as whistle-stops and dinners.[90] She was fluent in Spanish and French, and spoke some Italian and Polish on the campaign trail.[91] Though she had intended to take a more active role in the campaign, Kennedy learned that she was pregnant again shortly after the campaign began[92] and due to her previous difficult pregnancies, her doctor instructed her to stay at home.[93] From Georgetown, Kennedy participated in her husband's campaign in subsequent months by answering letters, taping television commercials, giving televised and printed interviews, and writing a weekly syndicated newspaper column, Campaign Wife.[93] She also made occasional personal appearances. One of her last times with him before the election was when they were given a Democratic presidential nominee Manhattan ticker-tape parade in October, 1960, where they were seen by more than a million New Yorkers.[94]

During her husband's campaign, Kennedy was the target of distaste from some of JFK's supporters, believing she was a snob who disliked politics. She had worried about this during his previous campaign for the U.S. Senate.[95] She was also disparaged by the press[96] for her penchant for wearing French clothing.[97] Though her husband was aware of the backlash, he did not ask her to change.[95] Beasley notes she was given a platform to defend herself with Campaign Wife, Kennedy responding to criticism in the column by expressing confusion over how her clothing and physical appearance in general would impact her husband's ability to effectively lead the nation.[98]

On July 13, 1960, John F. Kennedy, was nominated by the Democratic Party for President of the United States in Los Angeles at the 1960 Democratic National Convention. Kennedy did not attend her husband's nomination, but learned of it the following morning. Her pregnancy had been announced to the public ten days earlier, to explain her absence from the convention.[99] Later that month, on July 29, the Kennedys met at Hyannis Port with Lyndon B. Johnson and his wife, Lady Bird Johnson. Betty Hickman, Lady Bird's aide, recalled that Kennedy chose not to interact with the future Second Lady, while JFK consistently sought to make her comfortable.[100]

Kennedy watched the September 26, 1960 debate between her husband and Vice President Richard Nixon at Hyannis Port with Marian Cannon, wife of Arthur Schlesinger. Days after the debates, Kennedy contacted Schlesinger, informing him that her husband wanted his aid along with that of John Kenneth Galbraith in preparing for the third debate on October 13 and wished for them to give him new ideas and speeches.[101]
Jacqueline Kennedy and John F. Kennedy arrive at the National Guard Armory in Washington for the Inaugural Ball, January 20, 1961

On September 29, 1960, the Kennedys appeared together for a joint interview on Person to Person.[99] The couple had previously been interviewed on Person to Person the month following their marriage.[102] Charles Collingwood asked Kennedy what her role would be as First Lady, leading to her reply that she would "take care of the President so he can best serve the people. And not to fail her family, her husband and her children." Biographer Donald Spoto noted that the response was not considered "weak or old-fashioned" for its time.[99] Later, on election night, Kennedy watched the returns while her husband took a walk, after which he learned that he had been elected president.[103]
As First Lady
First Lady Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy, President John F. Kennedy, André Malraux, Marie-Madeleine Lioux Malraux, Lyndon B. Johnson and Lady Bird Johnson having just descended White House Grand Staircase on their way to a dinner with the French cultural minister, April 1962. The First Lady wears a gown designed by Oleg Cassini[104]

In the U.S. presidential election on November 8, 1960, John F. Kennedy narrowly beat Republican opponent Richard Nixon.[105] A little over two weeks later, on November 25, Kennedy gave birth to the couple's first son, John F. Kennedy, Jr., via Caesarean section.[72][106] After the birth, Kennedy spent two weeks in the hospital recovering, during which the most minute details of both her and her son's conditions were reported by the media in what has been considered the first instance of national interest in the Kennedy family.[107]

When JFK was sworn in as president on January 20, 1961, she became, at age 31, the third youngest First Lady in history, behind Frances Folsom Cleveland (21) and Julia Gardiner Tyler (24).[108] Kennedy was ill at her husband's inauguration after having visited the White House the previous month. She had been promised a wheelchair to support her as she had surgery shortly before, but it never appeared; instead she had to tour the mansion on foot. She spent the weeks between the visit and the inauguration for the most part in bed.[109] She was not impressed when she first saw the White House, comparing it to a dungeon and describing it as "cold and dreary".[110] Kennedy received support from her old school friend Letitia Baldrige, hiring her in August 1960 to assist her in becoming a successful First Lady, as Kennedy's ideas about how to go about performing such a task were not sharply formed. Prior to Baldrige joining the campaign, Kennedy had indicated she might be focusing on education or exchange programs for youth. After Baldrige was hired it was stated that the First Lady intended to restore the White House, which became her lasting legacy.[111]

As First Lady she was thrust into the spotlight, and while she did not mind giving interviews or being photographed, she preferred to maintain as much privacy as possible for herself and her children.[112] She ranks among the most popular of First Ladies,[6] remembered for reorganizing entertainment for White House social events, restoring the interior of the presidential home, her fashion trend-setting, her popularity among foreign dignitaries, and leading the country in mourning after John Kennedy's 1963 assassination.[113]
Social success

Kennedy devoted much of her time as First Lady to planning social events at the White House and other venues, often inviting artists, writers, scientists, poets, and musicians to mingle with politicians, diplomats, and statesmen. She also began to let guests at the White House drink cocktails, to give the mansion a more relaxed feeling.[114] Lynda Bird Johnson Robb, daughter of then-Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson, was left with a positive impression of Kennedy years later: "I thought of her as just larger-than-life".[115]

Perhaps due to her skill at entertaining, Kennedy proved quite popular among international dignitaries. When Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev was asked to shake President Kennedy's hand for a photo, Khrushchev said, "I'd like to shake her hand first."[116] Khrushchev later sent her a puppy, significant for being the offspring of the dog that had gone to space during a Soviet space mission.[117] Kennedy was also gifted with Sarbar, a horse, presented by Pakistan President Ayub Khan after finding out on his visit to the White House that he and the First Lady had a common interest in horses.[118][119] She was well received in Paris, France, when she visited with her husband, and when she traveled with her sister to Pakistan and India in 1962.[120] André Malraux was said by President Kennedy to be "far more interested in Jackie" than he was in him.[121]

During her tenure as First Lady and throughout her husband's political career, her public appearances would energize voters and give reporters "something positive to write about", making her a valuable asset to her husband's planned re-election bid for president and contributing to her accompanying him to Dallas.[122]
White House restoration
Jacqueline Kennedy with Charles Collingwood during their televised tour of the restored White House in 1962.
The Blue Room of the White House as redecorated by Stéphane Boudin in 1962. Boudin chose the period of the Madison administration, returning much of the original French Empire style furniture

The restoration of the White House was Kennedy's first major project as First Lady. She was dismayed during her pre-inauguration tour of the White House to find little of historic significance in the house. The rooms were furnished with undistinguished pieces that she felt lacked a sense of history. Her first efforts, begun her first day in residence (with the help of society decorator Sister Parish), were to make the family quarters attractive and suitable for family life. Among these changes was the addition of a kitchen on the family floor and rooms for her children. Upon almost immediately exhausting the funds appropriated for this effort, she established a fine arts committee to oversee and fund the restoration process and asked early American furniture expert Henry du Pont to consult.[123]

While her initial management of the project was hardly noted at the time, later accounts have determined that she managed the conflicting agendas of Parish, du Pont, and Boudin with seamless success;[124] she initiated publication of the first White House guidebook, whose sales further funded the restoration; she initiated a Congressional bill establishing that White House furnishings would be the property of the Smithsonian Institution, rather than available to departing ex-presidents to claim as their own; and she wrote personal requests to those who owned pieces of historical interest that might be, and later were, donated to the White House.[125]

On February 14, 1962, she took American television viewers on a tour of the White House with Charles Collingwood of CBS News. In the tour she said, "I feel so strongly that the White House should have as fine a collection of American pictures as possible. It's so important... the setting in which the presidency is presented to the world, to foreign visitors. The American people should be proud of it. We have such a great civilization. So many foreigners don't realize it. I think this house should be the place we see them best."[124] Working with Rachel Lambert Mellon, she oversaw redesign and replanting of the White House Rose Garden and the East Garden, which was renamed the Jacqueline Kennedy Garden after her husband's assassination. Her efforts on behalf of restoration and preservation at the White House left a lasting legacy in the form of the White House Historical Association, the Committee for the Preservation of the White House which was based upon her White House Furnishings Committee, a permanent Curator of the White House, the White House Endowment Trust, and the White House Acquisition Trust.[124]

Broadcasting of the White House restoration greatly helped the Kennedy administration.[124] The U.S. government sought international support during the Cold War, which was thought to be achieved by affecting public opinion. The First Lady's celebrity and high profile status made viewing the tour of the White House very popular. The tour film was distributed to 106 countries and in 1962 at the Emmy Awards a special Academy of Television Arts & Sciences Trustees Award was given to Kennedy for her CBS-TV tour of the White House. Lady Bird Johnson accepted for the camera-shy First Lady. The Emmy statuette is on display in the Kennedy Library located in Boston, Massachusetts. Focus and admiration for Kennedy took negative attention away from her husband. By attracting worldwide public attention, the First Lady gained allies for the White House and international support for the Kennedy administration and its Cold War policies.[126]
Foreign trips
Jacqueline Kennedy at the Taj Mahal, Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India on March 15, 1962

Throughout her husband's presidency, Kennedy made many official visits to other countries, on her own or with the President - more than any of the preceding First Ladies.[7] Before the Kennedys' first official visit to France in 1961, a television special was shot in French with the First Lady on the White House lawn. After arriving in the country, she impressed the public with her ability to speak French, as well as her extensive knowledge of French history.[120] She had been aided in her learning of the French language by the prominent Puerto Rican educator María Teresa Babín Cortés.[127] At the conclusion of the visit, Time magazine seemed delighted with the First Lady and noted, "There was also that fellow who came with her." Even President Kennedy joked, "I am the man who accompanied Jacqueline Kennedy to Paris – and I have enjoyed it!"[128][129]
Pakistani President Ayub Khan and Jacqueline Kennedy with Sardar (1962)

At the urging of John Kenneth Galbraith, U.S. Ambassador to India, she undertook a tour of India and Pakistan in 1962, taking her sister Lee Radziwill along with her, which was amply documented in photojournalism of the time as well as in Galbraith's journals and memoirs. At the time, Ambassador Galbraith noted a considerable disjunction between her widely noted concern with clothes and, on personal acquaintance, her considerable intellect.[citation needed] While in Karachi, Pakistan, she famously took a ride on a camel with her sister.[130] In Lahore, Pakistan, Pakistani President Ayub Khan presented the First Lady with a much-photographed horse, Sardar (the Urdu term meaning "leader"). Subsequently this gift was widely misattributed to the king of Saudi Arabia, including in the various recollections of the Kennedy White House years by journalist Benjamin Bradlee. While at a reception in her honor at the Shalimar Gardens, Kennedy told guests "all my life I've dreamed of coming to the Shalimar Gardens. It's even lovelier than I'd dreamed. I only wish my husband could be with me."[131] Life magazine correspondent Anne Chamberlin wrote that Kennedy "conducted herself magnificently” although noting that her crowds were smaller than those that President Dwight Eisenhower and Queen Elizabeth attracted when they had previously visited these countries.[132]

In addition to these well-publicized trips during the three years of the Kennedy administration, she traveled to countries including Afghanistan, Austria, Canada,[133] Colombia, England, Greece, Italy, Mexico,[134] Morocco, Turkey, and Venezuela - some countries on more than one trip.[7]
Death of infant son
Main article: Patrick Bouvier Kennedy

Early in 1963, the First Lady was pregnant again, leading her to curtail her official duties. She spent most of the summer at a home she and her husband had rented on Squaw Island, near the Kennedy compound on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, scheduling a Caesarean section for September at Walter Reed Hospital in Washington. However, on August 7, five weeks ahead of schedule, she went into labor and gave birth to a boy, Patrick Bouvier Kennedy, via emergency Caesarean section at nearby Otis Air Force Base. His lungs were not fully developed, and he was transferred from Cape Cod to Boston Children's Hospital where he died of hyaline membrane disease (now known as respiratory distress syndrome) two days after birth.[135][136] Kennedy had remained at Otis Air Force Base to recuperate after the Caesarean delivery; her husband went to Boston to be with their infant son, and was present at his death. He returned to Otis on August 14 to take her home, giving an impromptu speech to thank nurses and airmen that had gathered in her suite, and she presented hospital staff with framed and signed lithographs of the White House.[137]

The First Lady was deeply affected by the death,[138] entering a state of depression afterward.[139] But losing their child seemed to have a positive impact on the marriage, bringing the couple closer together in their shared grief. Upon their departure from Otis Air Force Base, they were seen holding hands, an unusual public gesture for them. Secret Service agent Clint Hill recalled their having "a distinctly closer relationship" following Patrick's death. Press secretary Pierre Salinger also believed that the President and First Lady had been brought closer by the passing of their last child.[138] Arthur Schlesinger wrote that while President Kennedy always "regarded Jacqueline with genuine affection and pride", their marriage "never seemed more solid than in the later months of 1963."[140]

Aware of her depression, Kennedy's friend Aristotle Onassis invited her to his yacht and she decided to go. Despite President Kennedy initially having reservations, he reportedly believed that it would be "good for her." The trip was widely disapproved of within the Kennedy administration and by much of the general public, as well as in Congress. The First Lady returned to the United States on October 17, 1963. She would later say she regretted being away as long as she was, but had "melancholy after the death of my baby".[139]
Assassination and funeral of John F. Kennedy
Main articles: Assassination of John F. Kennedy, State funeral of John F. Kennedy and John F. Kennedy autopsy
The President and Mrs. Kennedy arrive at Love Field in Dallas approximately 30 minutes before the assassination
The Presidential limousine just minutes before the assassination
Jacqueline Kennedy reaching out across the back of the presidential limousine, as captured on the Zapruder film
Jacqueline Kennedy, still wearing the blood stained pink Chanel suit, stands alongside as Lyndon B. Johnson takes the Presidential oath of office aboard Air Force One

On November 21, 1963, the President and First Lady left the White House for a political trip to Texas, the first time Kennedy had joined her husband on such a trip in the US.[141] After a breakfast on November 22, they flew from Fort Worth's Carswell Air Force Base to Dallas' Love Field on Air Force One, accompanied by Texas Governor John Connally and his wife Nellie.[142] The First Lady was wearing a bright pink Chanel suit and a pillbox hat,[4][5] which had been personally selected by President Kennedy.[143] A 9.5-mile (15.3 km) motorcade was to take them to the Trade Mart, where the President was scheduled to speak at a lunch. The First Lady was seated next to her husband in the presidential limousine, with the Governor and his wife seated in front of them. Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson and his wife followed in another car in the motorcade.

After the motorcade turned the corner onto Elm Street in Dealey Plaza, the First Lady heard what she thought to be a motorcycle backfiring and did not realize that it was a gunshot until she heard Governor Connally scream. Within 8.4 seconds, two more shots had rung out, and she leaned toward her husband. Another shot struck the President in the head. Almost immediately, she reached out across the trunk of the car for something. Her Secret Service agent, Clint Hill, later told the Warren Commission that he thought she had been reaching across the trunk for a piece of the President's skull that had been blown off.[144][page needed][145] Hill ran to the car and leapt onto it, directing her back to her seat. As Hill stood on the back bumper, Associated Press photographer Ike Altgens snapped a photograph that was featured on the front pages of newspapers around the world.[146] She would later testify that she saw pictures "of me climbing out the back. But I don't remember that at all."[147]

The car sped the 3.4 miles to Dallas' Parkland Hospital, and on arrival there, the President was rushed into a trauma room. The First Lady at first remained in a room for relatives and friends of patients just outside. A few minutes into her husband's treatment she attempted to enter the operating room. A nurse stopped her and tried to bar the door but she persisted, and the President's personal doctor, Admiral George Burkley who was traveling with them, suggested she take a sedative, which she refused. "I want to be there when he dies," she told Burkley. He eventually persuaded the nurse to grant her access to Trauma Room One, saying: "It's her right, it's her prerogative."[144][page needed]

Later, when the casket arrived, Kennedy removed her wedding ring and slipped it onto her husband's finger. She told aide Ken O'Donnell, "Now I have nothing left."[142]
Family members depart the U.S. Capitol after a lying-in-state ceremony for the President, November 24, 1963

After her husband was pronounced dead, Kennedy refused to remove her blood-stained clothing and reportedly regretted having washed the blood off her face and hands. She continued to wear the blood-stained pink suit as she went on board Air Force One and stood next to Johnson when he took the oath of office as President. She told Lady Bird Johnson, "I want them to see what they have done to Jack."[148] The unlaundered suit was donated to the National Archives and Records Administration in 1964, and under the terms of an agreement with Caroline Kennedy will not be placed on public display until 2103.[149] Johnson's biographer, Robert Caro, wrote that Johnson wanted Kennedy to be present at his swearing-in in order to demonstrate the legitimacy of his presidency to JFK loyalists and to the world at large.[150]

Kennedy took an active role in planning the details of her husband's state funeral, which was based on Abraham Lincoln's.[151] She requested a closed casket, overruling the wishes of her brother-in-law, Robert, who favored an open casket in keeping with tradition.[152] Jacqueline reportedly asked another brother-in-law, Sargent Shriver, for his help in arranging the funeral.[153][154] The funeral service was held at Cathedral of St. Matthew the Apostle, Washington D.C., and the burial at Arlington National Cemetery; the widow led the procession there on foot and lit the eternal flame at the gravesite, a flame that had been created at her request. Lady Jeanne Campbell reported back to The London Evening Standard: "Jacqueline Kennedy has given the American people... one thing they have always lacked: Majesty."[151]

A week after the assassination, on November 29,[155] the Warren Commission was established by President Johnson to investigate the assassination, concluding that Lee Harvey Oswald was the lone perpetrator.[156] Privately, Kennedy cared little of the investigation, believing that even if they had the right suspect, it would not bring her husband back.[157] Nevertheless, the widowed Kennedy gave a deposition to the Warren Commission, in which she recalled the shooting. There were some mixed feelings about whether she should testify, Earl Warren in particular indicating an unwillingness to interview her while John J. McCloy outright opposed such an inquiry. Future U.S. President Gerald Ford, who served on the Warren Commission, proposed "most informally" having her interviewed by an associate.[158] With the varying opinions of what to do lingering, Warren held a short meeting with Kennedy at her apartment.[158][159]

Following the assassination and the media coverage that had focused intensely on her during and after the burial, Kennedy stepped back from official public view. She did, however, make a brief appearance in Washington to honor the Secret Service agent, Clint Hill, who had climbed aboard the limousine in Dallas to try to shield her and the President.

In September 2011, audio tapes were released that had been recorded in 1964 after her husband's assassination. They were not supposed to be released until 50 years after her death (she died in 1994). Approximately 8.5 hours in length, the tapes contain an interview with Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., in which Kennedy revealed her thoughts on a wide range of topics, including the vice-president, Lyndon B. Johnson, and civil rights leader, Martin Luther King, Jr. She also discusses how she refused to leave her husband's side during the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis when other officials had sent their wives away for their safety.[160][161] More recently, some of her personal correspondence from the years 1950 to 1964 have surfaced, including letters that were written by her to Irish priest Joseph Leonard, whom she had twice met while in Ireland.[162] In her final letter to Leonard, Kennedy wrote she would have preferred losing her own life to losing her husband.[163]
Life following the John F. Kennedy assassination: 1963-1975
Jacqueline Kennedy's official White House portrait by Aaron Shikler

On November 29, 1963, a week after her husband's assassination, Kennedy was interviewed in Hyannis Port by Theodore H. White of Life magazine.[164] In that session, she famously compared the Kennedy years in the White House to King Arthur's mythical Camelot, commenting that the President often played the title song of Lerner and Loewe's musical recording before retiring to bed. She also quoted Queen Guinevere from the musical, trying to express how the loss felt.[165] Her steadiness and courage after her husband's assassination and funeral won her admiration around the world.[142]

Kennedy and her children remained in the White House for two weeks following the assassination, preparing to vacate.[166] For their last night, Kennedy threw John and Caroline a joint birthday party. The day before she left the White House, Johnson gave serious thought to appointing her to an ambassadorship to France, aware of her heritage and fondness for its culture. Johnson told Pierre Salinger that he wanted to "do something nice for Jackie". She turned the offer down, as well as follow-up offers of ambassadorships to Mexico and Great Britain. She publicly praised Johnson for his kindness to her[167] and asked him to rename the Florida space center after her late husband, seeking to ensure that his championing of the space program not be forgotten; a week after the assassination, Johnson renamed the facility the John F. Kennedy Space Center, honoring her request. She reportedly later regretted the request having learned that the name Cape Canaveral had existed since the time of Christopher Columbus.[168] After Kennedy and her children left the White House, Lady Bird Johnson found a bouquet of flowers and a note from her, saying she wished her a "happy arrival" and told her she would "be happy" there.[169]

Kennedy asked her Secret Service drivers to arrange her travel around Washington in such a way that she would never accidentally glimpse the White House.[170] On December 7, 1963, Lyndon Johnson telephoned her and encouraged her to return to visit the White House. She promised that she would some day,[171] but did not until February 1971, during the administration of Richard Nixon, when she returned to view her official portrait and that of President Kennedy before their public unveiling.[172]

Kennedy and her children spent the winter of 1963-64 in Averell Harriman's home at 3038 N Street in the Georgetown section of Washington, D.C., before purchasing their own home at number 3017 on the same street. Daily visits by her mother and sister eased her transition. She also received visits from her secretarial staff, who read her cards and poems received from different parts of the world. On January 14, 1964, Kennedy made a televised appearance from the office of the Attorney General, thanking the public for the "hundreds of thousands of messages" she had received since the assassination and said she had been sustained by America's affection for her late husband.[173] Later in 1964, in the hope of having more privacy for her children,[174] she decided to buy a 15th floor apartment at 1040 Fifth Avenue in Manhattan overlooking Central Park on the Upper East Side. She sold her new Georgetown house and the country home in Atoka, Virginia, where she and her husband had intended to retire. She spent a year in mourning,[175] making few public appearances; during this time, Caroline told one of her teachers that her mother cried frequently.[176][177] But due to her efforts and lobbying there was a tribute to President Kennedy at the 1964 Democratic National Convention in August. In October of that year, she received a surprise visit by President Johnson at the New York apartment.[178]

During the fall of 1966, Kennedy tried to block the publication of William Manchester's authorized account of President Kennedy's death. Along with her brother-in-law, Robert Kennedy, she been behind the choice of Manchester to write a memoir about the late president, referring to him as the author she had "hired."[179] She filed a lawsuit against him on December 16 of that year.[180][181] It was settled the following year with Manchester reportedly removing passages detailing President Kennedy's family life.[182] By 1967, the situation had made national news, giving Kennedy significant media attention for one of the few times between her leaving the White House and her marriage the following year. White viewed the ordeal as validation of the measures the Kennedy family, Kennedy in particular, were prepared to take to preserve President Kennedy's public image.[183]

On March 14, 1967, Kennedy, joined by brothers-in-law Robert and Ted Kennedy as well as President Johnson, attended a private ceremony in Arlington National Cemetery that saw the moving of her husband's coffin, after which he was reinterred so that officials at the cemetery could construct a safer and more stable eternal flame and accommodate the tourists' extensive foot traffic.[184]
Public appearances

In January 1964, Kennedy visited U.S. Ambassador to Britain John Hay Whitney's Georgia plantation. She was accompanied by British Ambassador to the U.S. David Ormsby-Gore and his wife Sylvia. Following the trip, Sylvia said that listening to Kennedy's recollections of the assassination was "becoming well-nigh unbearable" but regardless, she felt compelled to continue hearing her speak of the assassination. Kennedy wrote to British statesman Harold Macmillan of her continuing grief and her failure to find solace in religion.[185]

In April 1965 Lady Bird Johnson renamed the East Garden at the White House as the Jacqueline Kennedy Garden in the former First Lady's honor.[186] The Johnsons invited Kennedy back to the White House for the dedication ceremony, but she declined to attend.[187] Though she said it was "generous" of the new First Lady to rename the garden, she "just couldn't go back to that place".[188] Her mother, Robert and Ethel Kennedy, and sister-in-law Eunice Kennedy Shriver attended in her stead.[186]

Kennedy joined Queen Elizabeth II at Runnymede, England, in May 1965, where, alongside Robert and Ted Kennedy, they dedicated the United Kingdom's official memorial to JFK. The memorial included several acres of meadowland given in perpetuity from the UK to the US, near where King John had signed the Magna Carta in 1215.[189] Kennedy accepted President Johnson's offer of a presidential jet to transport the family to the dedication, but she insisted that it not be Air Force One, asking for one that looked least like that plane which held sad memories for her.[187]

She kept her husband's memory alive by attending selected memorial dedications. These included the 1967 christening of the U.S. Navy aircraft carrier USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67)[190] in Newport News, Virginia, a memorial in Hyannis Port, and a park near New Ross, Ireland. She oversaw plans for the establishment of the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, which is the repository for official papers of the Kennedy Administration.[191] Originally planned to be situated in Cambridge, Massachusetts, near Harvard University, it was instead situated in Boston, in Dorchester, next to the University of Massachusetts campus. The finished library, designed by I.M. Pei, includes a museum.

In November 1967, during the Vietnam War, Life magazine recognized Jacqueline as "America's unofficial roving ambassador" during her visit to Cambodia, when she and Chief of State Norodom Sihanouk visited the religious complex of Angkor Wat,[192] accompanied by trustee of the Kennedy School of Government David Harlech.[193] While there, she visited the ruins of Angkor, effectively fulfilling a "lifelong dream" of hers to tour the ruins. Australian historian Milton Osbourne would later write that her visit was "a very real event" and "the result of a lot of diplomacy".[194]

After the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr., in April 1968, Robert asked her to attend King's funeral services in Atlanta, Georgia. She was initially reluctant due to the crowds and reminders of President Kennedy's death, but did attend the funeral. Returning to New York afterward, she predicted that the widespread public sympathy for the King family would be short-lived, saying to Arthur M. Schlesinger that people "hate feeling guilty. They can't stand it for very long. Then they turn."[195]
Relationship with Robert F. Kennedy

After the JFK assassination, Kennedy relied heavily on her brother-in-law Robert (RFK), observing him to be the "least like his father" of the Kennedy brothers.[196] Her brother-in-law had been a source of support early in her marriage to JFK when she had her miscarriage. It was he, not her husband, who stayed with her in the hospital.[197] RFK had considered dropping out of politics in the aftermath of his brother's death, but was convinced by Kennedy not to do so, and she supported his 1964 run from New York for the United States Senate.[198] She also suggested that he begin reading the plays and writing of Greeks such as Aeschylus and Sophocles, advice that he followed.[199]

Biographers have expressed opinions regarding their relationship. Ros Gilpatric concluded that the two clung to each other for emotional support in the aftermath of the assassination, saying Robert Kennedy "was the only one who could pull her out of her depression."[200] Thomas reasoned the pair were brought together by shared agony over President Kennedy's death and similarities in upbringing.[201] Donald Spoto observed that Robert did not leave her to "solitary grief" in the months following the assassination, becoming a surrogate father for her children and consistently coming to see her, but that eventually demands by his own large family and his responsibilities as Attorney General required a reduction in his attention.[173]

Following the January 1968 Vietnam Tet offensive, which was followed by a drop in President Johnson's poll numbers, Robert Kennedy's advisors urged him to enter the presidential race. When asked by Art Buchwald if he intended to run, Robert replied, "That depends on what Jackie wants me to do."[202][203]

Kennedy met with RFK around this time, encouraging him to run after previously advising him to not copy his brother, but to "be yourself." Privately, she worried about his safety, believing he was more disliked than her husband had been and that there was "so much hatred" in America.[204] She confided in him about these feelings, but by her own account, he was "fatalistic" like her.[202] Despite her concerns, Kennedy campaigned for her brother-in-law and supported him,[205] at one point even showing outright optimism that through his victory, members of the Kennedy family would once again occupy the White House.[202]

In May 1968, Kennedy went on a four-day cruise to the Virgin Islands with Aristotle Onassis aboard his yacht, the Christina O. After returning to the United States, she made attempts to keep her relationship with Onassis away from the press by attending high-profile functions with Ros Gilpatric and Lord Harlech, both appearing to be romantic interests of hers.[206] Fearing that it would hurt his presidential campaign, RFK's wife, Ethel, asked Kennedy to not go through with marrying Onassis. Kennedy promised she would not make any decisions until after the election.[207]

Just after midnight PDT on June 5, 1968, Robert F. Kennedy was shot and mortally wounded, minutes after celebrating his victory in the California Democratic presidential primary with a crowd of his supporters.[208] Kennedy rushed to Los Angeles from Manhattan to join RFK's wife, her brother-in-law Ted Kennedy, and the other Kennedy family members at his hospital bedside. RFK died 26 hours after the shooting without regaining consciousness.[209] She initially refused to board a presidential jet sent by Lyndon Johnson to bring the family and her brother-in-law's remains back to New York, mistakenly thinking that it might be the same plane that had carried her husband's coffin with her from Dallas. Reassured that it was not, she and the family, joined by Coretta Scott King, flew back to New York for the subsequent funeral services.[210]
Onassis marriage

Devastated by RFK's death, Kennedy reportedly suffered a relapse of the depression she had experienced in the days following her husband's assassination nearly five years prior.[211] She came to fear for her life and those of her children, saying: "If they're killing Kennedys, then my children are targets ... I want to get out of this country."[212]

On October 20, 1968, she married her long-time friend Aristotle Onassis, a wealthy Greek shipping magnate who was able to provide the privacy and security she sought for herself and her children.[212] The wedding took place on Skorpios, Onassis's private Greek island in the Ionian Sea.[213] Following her marriage and now going by the name Jacqueline Onassis, she lost her right to Secret Service protection, an entitlement to a widow of a U.S. president. The marriage brought her considerable adverse publicity. The negative reaction included talk of excommunication by the Roman Catholic church, later deemed as "nonsense" by Cardinal Cushing.[214] With condemnation as a "public sinner,"[215] she became the target of paparazzi who followed her everywhere and nicknamed her "Jackie O."[216] She reportedly considered a position as an anchor at NBC, but her husband was against this, stating, "No Greek wife works."[217]

A couple of years after marrying Onassis, she wrote to Ted Kennedy with the request that he take on the role of surrogate father to her children, who had been without a Kennedy father figure in the aftermath of Bobby's death. Ted regularly visited the children after the request.[218] She developed a close relationship with Ted, who saw her as his "adored brother's wife"; Ted was involved in her public appearances from then on.[219]

In February 1971, she returned to the White House with her children for the first time since the days following the assassination. She declined President Nixon's invitation to attend the official unveiling of the mansion's portraits for President Kennedy and herself,[220] opting instead for a low profile trip, without media fanfare. and her children privately dined with the Nixons and she later wrote the couple a note, thanking them and their daughters for helping her children "rediscover their childhood".[221][222]

Tragedy struck again when Aristotle Onassis' son Alexander died in a plane crash in January 1973.[223] Aristotle's own health began deteriorating rapidly and he died of respiratory failure at age 69 in Paris, on March 15, 1975. Onassis's financial legacy was severely limited under Greek law, which dictated how much a non-Greek surviving spouse could inherit. After two years of legal battle, she eventually accepted a settlement of $26 million from Christina Onassis, Onassis' daughter and sole heir, waiving all other claims to the Onassis estate.[224]

During their marriage the couple inhabited six different residences: her 15-room Fifth Avenue apartment in New York City, her horse farm in New Jersey, his Avenue Foch apartment in Paris, his private island Skorpios, his house in Athens, and his 325 ft (99 m) yacht The Christina.[225]
Later years: 1975-1990s
Book editor and preservationist

Her second husband's death in 1975 made Onassis a widow again. Now that her children were older, she decided to find work that would be fulfilling to her. Since she had always enjoyed writing and literature, in 1975 she accepted a job offer as a consulting editor at Viking Press. But, in 1977 the President of Viking Press, Thomas H. Guinzburg, authorized the purchase of the Jeffrey Archer novel Shall We Tell the President?, which was set in a fictional future presidency of Ted Kennedy and described an assassination plot against him. Although Guinzburg cleared the book purchase and publication with Onassis, upon the publication of a negative New York Times review which asserted that she held some responsibility for its publication, she abruptly resigned from Viking Press the next day.[226] She then moved to Doubleday as an associate editor under an old friend, John Sargent, and lived in New York City, Martha's Vineyard, and the Kennedy Compound in Hyannis, Massachusetts. From 1980 until her death, her companion and personal financial adviser was Maurice Tempelsman, a Belgian-born industrialist and diamond merchant who was long separated from his wife.[227]

Prior to her publishing employment, she had gained experience by being involved with several posthumous biographies of President Kennedy. The first of these was John F. Kennedy, President, by Hugh Sidey, which was published the year after his death in 1964. Simon Michael Bessie, Sidey's editor at Atheneum, recalled her as having read galleys and submitted detailed notes on them. Despite this recollection, Sidey himself did not acknowledge her contribution in the book. The following year, she helped Ted Sorensen with his book Kennedy. Sorensen told Greg Lawrence that after finishing the "first draft" of his "first big book", he gave Onassis the manuscript since he thought she would be helpful and Onassis provided him with several comments on the book. Sorensen lauded her assistance in his memoir Counselor as he wrote that she had "proved to be a superb editor, correcting typographical errors, challenging mistaken assumptions, defending some of her husband's personnel decisions, suggesting useful clarifications, and repeatedly setting the record straight on matters not known to me".[228]

Among the many books Onassis edited was Larry Gonick's The Cartoon History of the Universe.[229] He expressed his gratitude in the acknowledgments in Volume 2. At Doubleday she also oversaw, with Martha Levin, the English translation of the three volumes of Naghib Mahfuz's Cairo Trilogy.[230] Some of the authors whose books she edited include ballerina Gelsey Kirkland,[231] singer Carly Simon,[232] and fashion icon Diana Vreeland.[231]
Jacqueline Onassis in 1985 with the President and First Lady, Ronald and Nancy Reagan

Onassis also appreciated the contributions of African-American writers to the American literary canon. She encouraged Dorothy West, her neighbor on Martha's Vineyard and the last surviving member of the Harlem Renaissance, to complete the novel The Wedding (1995), a multi-generational story about race, class, wealth, and power in the U.S.; West acknowledged her editor's encouragement in the foreword. The novel, which received literary acclaim when it was published by Doubleday,[233] was later adapted into a television miniseries of the same name (1998) starring Halle Berry.[234]

Onassis also worked to preserve and protect America's cultural and architectural heritage. While First Lady, she helped to stop the destruction of historic homes in Lafayette Square in Washington, D.C., because she felt these buildings were an important part of the nation's capital and played an essential role in its history.[124] Later, in New York City, she led a historic preservation campaign to save from demolition and renovate Grand Central Terminal.[174] A plaque inside the terminal acknowledges her prominent role in its preservation. In the 1980s, she was a major figure in protests against a planned skyscraper at Columbus Circle which would have cast large shadows on Central Park;[174] the project was cancelled, but a large twin-towered skyscraper would later fill in that spot in 2003, the Time Warner Center.

In 1979, she visited China with I. M. Pei and his wife Eileen. She also visited the northern part of India in 1984 and the southern part five years later in 1989 with friends Cary and Edith Welch. Already interested in India's temple structure, she used her knowledge on the subject to help her prepare a catalog for an exhibition at the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art.[193]

She remained the subject of considerable press attention,[235] most notoriously involving the tabloid photographer Ron Galella who followed her around and photographed her as she went about her day-to-day activities, obtaining candid photos of her without her permission.[236] She ultimately obtained a restraining order against him, and the situation brought attention to the problem of paparazzi-style photography.[237]

Her apartment windows in Manhattan overlooked a glass-enclosed wing of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, which displays a replica of the Temple of Dendur. This was a gift from Egypt to the U.S. in gratitude for the generosity of the Kennedy administration, which had been instrumental in saving several temples and objects of Egyptian antiquity that would otherwise have been flooded after the construction of the Aswan Dam.[18]
Political activities

After Robert Kennedy's assassination and her second marriage, both in 1968, Onassis stayed away from major political events, until the 1976 Democratic National Convention, where she stunned the assembled delegates when she appeared in the visitors' gallery.[238][239] Three years later, Onassis appeared alongside her mother-in-law Rose Kennedy at Faneuil Hall in Boston, Massachusetts when Ted Kennedy announced that he was going to challenge incumbent President Carter for the Democratic nomination for president.[240] She went on to campaign for her brother-in-law, who lost the nomination to Carter.[241]

During Ronald Reagan's presidency, Onassis had occasional communications with Nancy Reagan,[242] who invited the former First Lady to the White House to see its changes. She declined on the grounds that she "prefers not to return to Washington", but assured Reagan she would let her know if she changed her mind.[243] In June 1985, Jacqueline attended a fundraiser for the John F. Kennedy Library at the home of Ted Kennedy, both President Reagan and Nancy Reagan also in attendance.[244][245]

In the early 1990s, she became a supporter of Bill Clinton and contributed money to his presidential campaign.[246] Following the election, Onassis met with First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton, and advised her on the difficulties of raising a child in the spotlight of the White House,[247] and encouraging her to ignore those who criticized her style and remain true to who she was. Clinton wrote in her memoir Living History, that Onassis was "a source of inspiration and advice for me."[246] Frank Mankiewicz, who served as press secretary to Robert F. Kennedy, theorized that Onassis had an affinity with President Clinton due to his kinship with President Kennedy, whom he often quoted. Democratic consultant Ann Lewis viewed Onassis as having reached out to the Clintons "in a way she has not always acted toward leading Democrats in the past".[242]
Illness, death and funeral
Grave of Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis at Arlington National Cemetery (2006)

On November 21, 1993, while participating in a fox hunt in Middleburg, Virginia, Onassis fell from her horse while trying to jump off and remained unconscious for a half-hour. A physician examined her and discovered a swollen lymph node in her groin, which was initially believed by the doctor to be an infection. She flew back to Manhattan the following day, the thirtieth anniversary of her husband's assassination, and attended a Requiem Mass for President Kennedy with her children.[248] Biographer Edward Klein attributed the fall to a result of her declining health.[249]

Two months later, in January 1994, Onassis was diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, a type of blood cancer.[250] Her diagnosis was announced to the public the following month. The family and doctors were initially optimistic, and she stopped smoking at the insistence of Caroline, having previously been a three-pack-a-day smoker.[251] She continued her work at Doubleday, but curtailed her schedule, making her last public appearance in March at the Municipal Art Society re-dedication of Grand Central Terminal.[citation needed] The cancer proved to be aggressive, and by April had spread. She made her last trip home from New York Hospital–Cornell Medical Center on May 18, 1994. A large crowd of well-wishers and reporters had gathered on the sidewalk outside her Fifth Avenue apartment.

The following night at 10:15 p.m., Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis died in her sleep, two months before her 65th birthday. Her son stated "My mother died surrounded by her friends and her family and her books, and the people and the things that she loved. She did it in her own way, and on her own terms, and we all feel lucky for that."[252]

The funeral was held a few blocks away from her apartment on May 23, 1994, at the Church of St. Ignatius Loyola, the Catholic parish where she was baptized in 1929 and confirmed as a teenager.[253][254] At her funeral, her son John described three of her attributes as the love of words, the bonds of home and family, and the spirit of adventure. She was buried alongside President Kennedy, their son Patrick, and their stillborn daughter Arabella at Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington, Virginia.[175][255] President Bill Clinton delivered a eulogy at her graveside service.[256]

She was survived by her children Caroline and John, three grandchildren, sister Lee Radziwill, son-in-law Edwin Schlossberg, and half-brother James Lee Auchincloss. She left an estate valued at $43.7 million by its executors.[257]
Legacy
Popularity
Jacqueline Kennedy in India, 1962

Among the First Ladies of the United States, Jacqueline Kennedy remains one of the most popular. She was featured on the annual Gallop list of the top 10 most admired people of the second half of the 20th century 27 times, a number superseded by only Billy Graham and Queen Elizabeth II and higher than that of any U.S. President.[258] In 2011, she was ranked in fifth place in a list of the five most influential First Ladies of the twentieth century for her "profound effect on American society."[259] In 2014, she ranked third place in a Siena College Institute survey,[260][261] behind Eleanor Roosevelt and Abigail Adams.[262] In 2015, she was included in a list of the top ten influential U.S. First Ladies due to the admiration for her based around "her fashion sense and later after her husband's assassination, for her poise and dignity."[263]

Onassis is seen as being customary in her role as First Lady,[264][265] though Magill argues her life was validation that "fame and celebrity" changed the way First Ladies are evaluated historically.[266] Hamish Bowles, curator of the “Jacqueline Kennedy: The White House Years” exhibit at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, attributed her popularity to a sense of unknown that was felt in her withdrawal from the public which he dubbed "immensely appealing."[267] Writing after her death, Kelly Barber called Jacqueline "the most intriguing woman in the world" and furthered she was impressive due to her affiliation with valuable causes.[268] Historian Carl Sferrazza Anthony summarized that Jacqueline "became an aspirational figure of that era, one whose privilege might not be easily reached by a majority of Americans but which others could strive to emulate.”[258]

Much commentary has been given to her restoration of the White House. Hugh Sidey credited her with transforming the White House into "a living stage" where art could be valued by sightseers as opposed to the exhibition it had been in previous administrations.[258][269] Leticia Baldridge viewed Onassis as having been traditional in her role as President Kennedy's wife, but asserted she turned the White House "into a museum of the best quality. She organized the White House Fine Art Committee. She hired top historians and raised funds. She got it museum status.”[270] Laura Bush, First Lady during the 2000s, wrote that Onassis "left a rich legacy" through reforming the White House.[271] Kathleen P. Galop wrote that Jacqueline was most remembered for the restoration by and that she was successful in her goal of "bringing the history of the White House and historic preservation into the homes of one-third of the nation" through her televised appearance in 1962.[272] Anthony viewed the restoration as having solidified Jacqueline as the first First Lady to have a "project", which she further defined as an "area of especial concern which addressed aspects of national life or the needs of an ignored demographic or social problem."[273]
Style icon

During her husband's presidency, Jacqueline Kennedy became a symbol of fashion and style for women worldwide. She retained French-born American fashion designer and Kennedy family friend Oleg Cassini in the fall of 1960 to create an original wardrobe for her as First Lady. From 1961 to late 1963, Cassini dressed her in many of her most iconic ensembles, including her Inauguration Day fawn coat and Inaugural gala gown, as well as many outfits for her visits to Europe, India, and Pakistan. In her first year in the White House, Kennedy spent $45,446 more on fashion than the $100,000 annual salary her husband earned as president (He donated the annual salary to charity).[274]
Jacqueline Kennedy at a State dinner on May 22, 1962

Her clean suits with a skirt hem down to middle of the knee, three-quarter sleeves on notch-collar jackets, sleeveless A-line dresses, above-the-elbow gloves, low-heel pumps, and famous pillbox hats were overnight successes around the world and quickly became known as the "Jackie" look.[274] Although Cassini was her primary designer, she also wore ensembles by French fashion legends such as Chanel, Givenchy, and Dior. More than any other First Lady her style was copied by commercial manufacturers and a large segment of young women.[7] Her influential bouffant hairstyle, described as a "grown-up exaggeration of little girls' hair," was created by Kenneth, whom she had been seeing since 1954, and who continued to style her hair until 1986.[275][276]

In the years after the White House, her style changed dramatically. Gone were the modest "campaign wife" clothes. Wide-leg pantsuits, large lapel jackets, gypsy skirts, silk Hermès head scarves, and large, round, dark sunglasses became her new look. She often chose to wear brighter colors and patterns and even began wearing jeans in public.[277] Beltless, white jeans with a black turtleneck, never tucked in, but pulled down over the hips, was another fashion trend that she set.[278]

Throughout her lifetime, she acquired a large collection of exquisite and priceless jewelry. Her triple-strand pearl necklace designed by American jeweler Kenneth Jay Lane became her signature piece of jewelry during her time as First Lady in the White House. Often referred to as the "berry brooch," the two-fruit cluster brooch of strawberries made of rubies with stems and leaves of diamonds, designed by French jeweler Jean Schlumberger for Tiffany & Co., was personally selected and given to her by her husband several days prior to his inauguration in January 1961.[279] She wore Schlumberger's gold and enamel bracelets so frequently in the early and mid-1960s that the press called them "Jackie bracelets;" she also favored his white enamel and gold "banana" earrings. She wore jewelry designed by Van Cleef & Arpels throughout the 1950s,[280] 1960s[280] and 1970s; her sentimental favorite was the Van Cleef & Arpels wedding ring given to her by President Kennedy.[281] She was named to the International Best Dressed List Hall of Fame in 1965.[282][283]
Honors and memorials
External video ST49816218NOV1962.jpg
Jacqueline Kennedy, First Ladies, Influence and Image, C-SPAN

    A high school named Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis High School for International Careers, was dedicated by New York City in 1995, the first high school named in her honor. It is located at 120 West 46th Street between Sixth and Seventh Avenues, and was formerly the High School for the Performing Arts.[284]
    In December 1999, she was among 18 included in Gallup's List of Widely Admired People of the 20th Century, from a poll conducted of the American people.[285]
    The main reservoir in Central Park, located in New York City, was renamed in her honor as the Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Reservoir.[286]
    The Municipal Art Society of New York presents the Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Medal to an individual whose work and deeds have made an outstanding contribution to the city of New York. The medal was named in honor of the former MAS board member in 1994, for her tireless efforts to preserve and protect New York City's great architecture.[287] She made her last public appearance at the Municipal Art Society two months before her death.
    At George Washington University, a residence hall located on the southeast corner of I and 23rd streets NW in Washington, D.C., was renamed Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis Hall in honor of the alumna.[288]
    The White House's East Garden was renamed the Jacqueline Kennedy Garden in her honor.[289]
    In 2007, her name and her first husband's were included on the list of people aboard the Japanese Kaguya mission to the moon launched on September 14, as part of The Planetary Society's "Wish Upon The Moon" campaign.[290] In addition, they are included on the list aboard NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission.
    A school and an award at the American Ballet Theatre have been named after her in honor of her childhood study of ballet.[291]
    The companion book for a series of interviews between mythologist Joseph Campbell and Bill Moyers, The Power of Myth, was created under her direction prior to her death. The book's editor, Betty Sue Flowers, writes in the Editor's Note to The Power of Myth: "I am grateful... to Jacqueline Lee Bouvier Kennedy Onassis, the Doubleday editor, whose interest in the books of Joseph Campbell was the prime mover in the publication of this book." A year after her death in 1994, Moyers dedicated the companion book for his PBS series, The Language of Life as follows: "To Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis. As you sail on to Ithaka." Ithaka was a reference to the C.P. Cavafy poem[292] that Maurice Tempelsman read at her funeral.[293]
    A white gazebo is dedicated to Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis on North Madison Street in Middleburg, Virginia. The First Lady and President Kennedy frequented the small town of Middleburg and intended to retire in the nearby town of Atoka. She also hunted with the Middleburg Hunt numerous times.[294]



Doña María del Rosario Cayetana Fitz-James Stuart y de Silva, 18th Duchess of Alba de Tormes, Grandee of Spain (28 March 1926 – 20 November 2014), was head of the House of Alba and the third woman to hold the title in her own right.

Born at Liria Palace on 28 March 1926, she was the only child of the 17th Duke of Alba (a prominent Spanish politician and diplomat during the 1930s and 1940s) by his wife, María del Rosario de Silva y Gurtubay, 9th Marchioness of San Vicente del Barco. Her godmother was the Queen Consort of Spain, Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg, wife of Alfonso XIII de Borbón, King of Spain.

As head of the dynasty, she was styled by her most senior title of Duchess of Alba, whilst holding over 40 other hereditary titles.[1] According to Guinness World Records, she was the most titled aristocrat in the world.[2]

Via her descent from James FitzJames, she was King James II of England's senior illegitimate descendant.

She was inducted into Vanity Fair's International Best Dressed List Hall of Fame[3] in 2011

Contents

    1 Life and family
    2 Death
        2.1 Funeral
    3 Titles, styles and honours
        3.1 Titles
        3.2 Styles
        3.3 Honours
        3.4 Honorary appointments
    4 Ancestry
    5 References
    6 External links

Life and family

On 12 October 1947, the Duchess married Don Luis Martínez de Irujo y Artázcoz (1919–1972), son of the Duke of Sotomayor.[4] The wedding in Spain, just after the Second World War, is considered to be one of the last great weddings of European nobility and attracted the attention of the international media. The New York Times called it "the most expensive wedding of the world."[5] It was reported that 20 million pesetas (€7,644,678 equivalent in 2014) was spent at that time. Six children were born of this marriage, who were all conferred noble titles by their mother, in accordance with Spanish Royal protocol, including the rank of Grandee of Spain.

    Carlos Fitz-James Stuart, 14th Duke of Huéscar, later 19th Duke of Alba (born 2 October 1948, Madrid). In 1988, he married Matilde Solís-Beaumont y Martínez-Campos, but they later divorced. Together they had two children:
        Fernando Juan Fitz-James Stuart y Solís (born 14 September 1990 at Madrid).
        Carlos Arturo José María Fitz-James Stuart y Solís (born 29 November 1991 at Madrid).
    Alfonso Martínez de Irujo y Fitz-James Stuart, 19th Duke of Híjar (born 22 October 1950, Madrid). On 4 July 1977 he married Princess María de la Santísima Trinidad of Hohenlohe-Langenburg (born 8 April 1957), whom he later divorced. Together they have two children:
        Luis Martínez de Irujo y Hohenlohe-Langenburg (born 29 May 1978), 19th Duque of Aliaga.
        Javier Martínez de Irujo y Hohenlohe-Langenburg (born 9 January 1981), 19th Marquess of Almenara. He married sherry heiress Inés Domecq y Fernández-Govantes in 2008.[6] They have two children.
            Sol Martínez de Irujo y Domecq (born 2011).[7]
            Alfonso Martínez de Irujo y Domecq (born 2013).[8]
    Jacobo Fitz-James Stuart y Martínez de Irujo, 23rd Count of Siruela (born 15 July 1954, Madrid). On 1 November 1980, he married María Eugenia Fernández de Castro y Fernández-Shaw (born 15 October 1954), but they later divorced. He remarried journalist, editor and writer Inka Martí Kiemann in April 2004. Jacobo and María Eugenia have two children:
        Jacobo Fitz-James Stuart y Fernández de Castro (born 23 January 1981). He married Asela Pilar Pérez Becerril on 14 May 2011.[9] Co-owners of an art gallery. They had a daughter and a son.
            Asela Fitz-James Stuart y Pérez (born 2012).
            Jacobo Fitz-James Stuart y Pérez (born 2015).[10][11]
        Brianda Eugenia Fitz-James Stuart y Fernández de Castro (born 11 April 1984).
    Fernando Martínez de Irujo y Fitz-James Stuart, 11th Marquis of San Vicente del Barco (born 11 July 1959).
    Cayetano Martínez de Irujo y Fitz-James Stuart, 4th Duke of Arjona, 13th Count of Salvatierra (born 4 April 1963, Madrid). In October 2005, after a five-year relationship, he married Genoveva Casanova y González from Mexico (daughter of Kenneth Larry Casanova and his first wife Mariana González y Reimann). They separated in 2007, but have twin children:
        Luis Martínez de Irujo y Casanova (born 25 October 2001).
        Amina Martínez de Irujo y Casanova (born 25 October 2001).
    Eugenia Martínez de Irujo, 12th Duchess of Montoro, born 26 November 1968. On 23 October 1998, she married bullfighter Francisco Rivera Ordóñez of the Ordóñez bullfighting dynasty. The couple divorced in 2002. They have one child:
        Cayetana Rivera y Martínez de Irujo (born 16 October 1999).

After becoming a widow, the Duchess remarried on 16 March 1978 to Jesús Aguirre y Ortiz de Zárate (1934–2001), a Doctor of Theology and a former Jesuit priest. The wedding caused shock; Aguirre was illegitimate, which was scandalous in 1970s Spain.[12] Eight years younger than the Duchess, he maintained a good relationship with her children. During their marriage he administered, with his stepson Carlos, the Alba estates.[13] Aguirre died in 2001.

Details emerged in 2008 regarding the Duchess's intention to marry Alfonso Díez Carabantes, a civil servant who also runs a public relations business, 24 years her junior. It was reported that there were objections from her children and from King Juan Carlos, and the House of Alba that year issued a statement saying that the relationship "was based on a long friendship and there are no plans to marry".[12][14] The duchess decided to proceed with the marriage, overcoming her children's opposition by giving them their inheritance in advance. The duchess's fortune included ancient palaces throughout Spain, paintings by old and modern masters (from Fra Angelico, Titian and Goya to Renoir and Marc Chagall), a first-edition copy of Cervantes's Don Quixote, letters written by Christopher Columbus, and huge tracts of land; her wealth was estimated at between €600 million and €3.5 billion.[1] Díez formally renounced any claim to her wealth.[12] They married on 5 October 2011 at the Palacio de las Dueñas in Seville.[15] The Duchess, whose passions included flamenco, performed a quick few steps of the dance in front of the crowds that had gathered outside the palace on the day of the wedding.[16]

As a socialite, the duchess met famous VIPs from Spain and abroad. Jackie Kennedy visited her Seville palace, as did Wallis Simpson, Grace Kelly and Prince Rainier of Monaco. In 1959 the duchess hosted one Dior show for charitable purposes in her Liria Palace in Madrid, together with designer Yves Saint Laurent. Movie stars such as Charlton Heston, Sophia Loren, Audrey Hepburn and Raf Vallone visited Liria Palace. In her youth the duchess posed for Richard Avedon and Cecil Beaton and she appeared on the cover of Time and Harper's Bazaar.

The Duchess's titles included that of Duchess of Berwick and she was a direct descendant of King James II and a distant relative of Winston Churchill and Diana, Princess of Wales.[16] The mother of the first duke of Berwick was Arabella Churchill, sister of the first duke of Marlborough, John Churchill. In 1802 after the death of the 13th duchess, who was childless, the dukedom passed to her relative, the duke of Berwick, a Spanish nobleman.
Death

The Duchess died in the Palacio de las Dueñas on November 20, 2014, at the age of 88. She was survived by her last husband, her six children, nine grandchildren and three great-grandchildren.[17] She was succeeded by her son Carlos Fitz-James Stuart, 14th Duke of Huéscar, who thus became the 19th Duke of Alba.
Funeral

After her death the Duchess' body was laid in repose at the Town Hall, where thousands of Sevillans paid their last respects. Pictures of the Duchess with her family were placed at her coffin. The King of Spain telephoned her son to pay his respects and sent two flower crowns to Seville. The Lord Mayor said that the flags of the city would be lowered in mourning. Msgrs. Juan José Asenjo and Curro Romero, and Mr. Rajoy also formally paid their respects.[18] Her funeral was held at Seville Cathedral by Msgr. Carlos Amigo Vallejo where the Royal Family were represented by the Infanta Elena.[19]
Titles, styles and honours
Titles
Coat of arms of Cayetana, 18th Duchess of Alba.

Dukedoms

    18th Duchess of Alba, Grandee of Spain
    15th Duchess of Aliaga, Grandee of Spain -Ceded to her son Don Alfonso
    13th Duchess of Almazán, Grandee of Spain -obtained in 2013
    4th Duchess of Arjona, Grandee of Spain -Ceded to her son Don Cayetano[20]
    11th Duchess of Berwick, Grandee of Spain
    17th Duchess of Híjar, Grandee of Spain -Ceded to her son Don Alfonso[21]
    11th Duchess of Liria and Jérica, Grandee of Spain
    11th Duchess of Montoro, Grandee of Spain -Ceded to her daughter Doña Eugenia

Count-Dukedoms

    12th Countess-Duchess of Olivares, Grandee of Spain

Marquessates

    17th Marquise of the Carpio, Grandee of Spain
    10th Marquise of San Vicente del Barco, Grandee of Spain -Ceded to her son Don Fernando
    16th Marquise of La Algaba
    16th Marquise of Almenara -Ceded to her son Don Alfonso[22]
    18th Marquise of Barcarrota
    10th Marquise of Castañeda
    23rd Marquise of Coria
    14th Marquise of Eliche
    16th Marquise of Mirallo
    20th Marquise of la Mota
    20th Marquise of Moya
    17th Marquise of Orani -Ceded to her son Don Alfonso[23]
    12th Marquise of Osera
    14th Marquise of San Leonardo
    19th Marquise of Sarria
    12th Marquise of Tarazona
    15th Marquise of Valdunquillo
    18th Marquise of Villanueva del Fresno
    17th Marquise of Villanueva del Río

Countships

    27th Countess of Aranda, Grandee of Spain -Ceded to her son Don Alfonso[24]
    22nd Countess of Lemos, Grandee of Spain
    20th Countess of Lerín, Grandee of Spain, Constabless of Navarre
    20th Countess of Miranda del Castañar, Grandee of Spain
    16th Countess of Monterrey, Grandee of Spain
    20th Countess of Osorno, Grandee of Spain
    18th Countess of Palma del Río, Grandee of Spain -Ceded to her son Don Alfonso[25]
    12th Countess of Salvatierra, Grandee of Spain -Ceded to her son Don Cayetano
    22nd Countess of Siruela, Grandee of Spain -Ceded to her son Don Jacobo
    19th Countess of Andrade
    14th Countess of Ayala
    16th Countess of Casarrubios del Monte
    16th Countess of Fuentes de Valdepero
    11th Countess of Fuentidueña
    17th Countess of Galve
    18th Countess of Gelves
    16th Countess of Guimerá -Ceded to her son Don Alfonso[26]
    21st Countess of Modica (Kingdom of Sicily)
    24th Countess of Ribadeo -Ceded to her son Don Alfonso[27]
    25th Countess of San Esteban de Gormaz
    12th Countess of Santa Cruz de la Sierra
    20th Countess of Villalba

Viscountcies

    12th Viscountess of la Calzada

Manorial lordships

    29th Lady of Moguer

Styles

    28 March 1926 – 11 January 1935: The Most Excellent Doña Mª del Rosario Cayetana Fitz-James Stuart y Silva
    11 January 1935 – 28 January 1947: The Most Excellent The Duchess of Aliaga
    28 January 1947 – 18 February 1955: The Most Excellent The Duchess of Montoro
    18 February 1955 – 20 November 2014: The Most Excellent The Duchess of Alba de Tormes

Honours

National honours

     Spain: Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Order of Isabella the Catholic[28][29]
     Spain: Knight Grand Cross of the Civil Order of Alfonso X, the Wise[30][31][32]
     Spain: Knight of the Royal and Military Order of Saint Hermenegild[33]
     Spain: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Alcántara[34]
     Spain: Knight Grand Cross of the Civil Order of Charity[35]
     Spain: Knight Grand Cross of the Civil Order of Agricultural Merit[36]
     Spain Recipient of the Medal of Andalusia[37][38]
     Spain: Recipient of the Medal of Concepción[39]
     Spain: Recipient of the Medal of Línea[40]
     Spain: Recipient of the Medal of The Community of Madrid[41]
     Spain: Former Grand Master Recipient of the Medal of The Spanish Red Cross[42]
     Spain: Recipient of the Medal of Suffering for the Motherland

Foreign honours

    Greece Greek royal family: Dame Grand Cross of the Order of Beneficence[43][44]
    Kingdom of the Two Sicilies House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies Dame Grand Cross of Justice of the Calabrian Two Sicilian Order of Saint George[43][45][46]
     Japan: Wisteria Dame of the Order of the Precious Crown, 4th Class[47]

Honorary appointments

National honorary appointments

     Castilla-La Mancha: Marshal of Castilla-La Mancha[48]
     Aragon: Constable of Aragon[49]
    Valencian Community Llíria: Honorary Mayor of Llíria[50]
     Seville: Knight of the Royal Cavalry Armory of Seville[51][52]
     Spain: Honorary President of the Spanish Red Cross[53]
     Spain: Honorary President of the Spanish National Orchestra[54]
     Spain: Honorary President of the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando[55]

Foreign honorary appointments

     United States: Member of the Hispanic Society of America[56]
     United States: Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences




The 18th Duchess of Alba, who has died aged 88, was one of Spain’s best-known public figures. Her frizzy hair (sometimes dyed red), waxen skin and querulous voice uttering forthright opinions made her instantly recognisable. Never camera-shy and a frequent participant in high-society events, she was a darling of the gossip magazines, television shows and, in her later years, satirists.

The duchess, known as Cayetana de Alba, was fabulously rich and Spain’s biggest private landowner. She had palaces throughout the country, including the Palacio de las Dueñas in Seville, her main residence, and the Palacio de Liria, where she was born, in Madrid. The castle to which she owed her title is in Alba de Tormes, Salamanca. She usually spent the summer at her house in Ibiza or another in Marbella.

The dukedom of Alba goes back to the 15th century, but Cayetana de Alba was only the third female member of the dynasty to be duchess in her own right. Her godparents were King Alfonso XIII and Victoria Eugenie, his English queen. She was a grandee of Spain 14 times over and possessed 46 noble titles, including Duchess of Berwick, a Jacobite title, as she was a descendant of James II (VII of Scotland) and his mistress Arabella Churchill. Her titles gave her several arcane privileges, such as not having to kneel before the pope and being permitted to ride a horse into Seville Cathedral.

Cayetana’s early life was not quite as easy as her background suggests. The 1931 declaration of the Spanish republic resulted in the expulsion of the royal family and social conflict as landless peasants fought to occupy aristocrats’ often uncultivated estates. She hardly saw her mother, María del Rosario de Silva, who was ill with tuberculosis and died when Cayetana was eight.

She had a peripatetic childhood travelling with her father, Jacobo, the 17th Duke, until he became Franco’s representative in London during the 1936-39 civil war and ambassador there from 1939 to 1945. In London, the future duchess received a broader education than she would have had in postwar Spain, and hobnobbed with her poor relations the Churchills. Her adored father introduced her into the world of painting and the arts in general; the huge Alba private collection includes paintings by El Greco, Velázquez, Titian, Rembrandt and Goya.
Queen Sofía of Spain, left, and Cayetana de Alba, the 18th Duchess of Alba, in front of Goya’s portrait of her ancestor the 13th Duchess of Alba, 1795, at an exhibition in Madrid in 2012.
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Queen Sofía of Spain, left, and Cayetana de Alba, the 18th Duchess of Alba, in front of Goya’s portrait of her ancestor the 13th Duchess of Alba, 1795, at an exhibition in Madrid in 2012. Photograph: Agencia EFE/REX

She inherited the title on her father’s death in 1953. In 1947, she had married Luis Martínez de Irujo in what the French newspaper Libération called “the most expensive wedding in the world”. They had six children, each of whom was given a separate noble title. The duchess was regarded as a great beauty and was reputed to associate, in classic Andalusian upper-class fashion, with bullfighters and dancers. In 2009, she bought a white marble tomb in the San Fernando cemetery, Seville, in order to be buried beside the grave of a bullfighter who was rumoured to have been her lover. Her husband died in 1972 of leukaemia, and in 1978 she married the intellectual and former priest Jesús Aguirre.
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The duchess liked to insist that true aristocracy resided in culture and not money. In the 1950s, Picasso wanted to paint her, as Goya had painted one of her ancestors, both clothed and nude. Martínez de Irujo opposed the idea and the duchess reluctantly accepted that being painted, even clothed, by the communist Picasso would have caused an enormous scandal under the Franco dictatorship. Indeed, when she brought some Picasso paintings to a 1950s private showing in Seville, ultra-rightists demonstrated against the exhibition. This led to gossip that she was leftwing. In reality, the duchess, surrounded all her life by servants and pampered as an only child, always did exactly what she wanted. Both she and her father were monarchists with a blue-blooded disdain for Franco and the populist Falange. Her cultural tastes did not stop her from defending her estates tooth and nail, unlike another famous Andalusian aristocrat, the Duchess of Medina Sidonia, who gave away much of her land to workers’ co-operatives.

The tension in Andalusia, where little-cultivated feudal estates still coexist with impoverished agricultural labourers, was shown by a famous clash between the duchess and the agricultural workers’ union (SOC) in 2006. The union organised a mass demonstration in Seville to protest against the Andalusian government’s award to the duchess of the title Hija Predilecta (favoured daughter). The SOC argued that it was a disgrace to honour a landowner who received €2m a year in EU subsidies for the 84,000 acres she owned. The demonstration was dispersed by a police baton charge, leaving 14 injured. The duchess added insult to these injuries, saying on TV, “I couldn’t care less about a few madmen” and “All those demonstrating are delinquents.” To her chagrin, the SOC won a slander case and she had to pay the union €6,000 in damages.

In her last decade, she became something of a figure of fun because of her eccentric appearance, habits and statements, and an admirable refusal to live a conventional old age. Aguirre died in 2001 and in 2008 she entered into a long public spat with three of her children over her relationship with Alfonso Díez, a civil servant 24 years younger than her. “They don’t want me to marry, but they change partners more often than I do,” the never discreet duchess lamented before marrying Díez in 2011.

In 2009, a fictionalised television film about her life showed her undiminished capacity to fascinate millions, even in the middle of an economic crisis.

She is survived by her husband and children.

• María del Rosario Cayetana Alfonsa Victoria Eugenia Francisca Fitz-James Stuart y Silva, 18th Duchess of Alba, born 28 March 1926; died 20 November 2014